.Madura is an Indonesian island off the northeastern coast of Java. The island comprises an area of approximately 4, Madura is administered as part of the East Java province. It is separated from Java by the narrow Strait of Madura. In , Sultan Agung of Mataram conquered Madura and the island's government was brought under the Cakraningrats , a single princely line. The Cakraningrat family opposed Central Javanese rule and often conquered large parts of Mataram. Te buscamos los mejores videos porno de maduras viciosas follando, mamando pollas y corriendose de gusto. Casadas infieles, maduras milf y madres cachondas. Porno gratis . XVIDEOS madura videos, free. nailsusa.info - the best free porn videos on internet, % free.
Madura is an Indonesian island off the northeastern coast of Java. The island comprises an area of approximately 4, Madura is administered as part of the East Java province. It is separated from Java by the narrow Strait of Madura. In , Sultan Agung of Mataram conquered Madura and the island's government was brought under the Cakraningrats , a single princely line. The Cakraningrat family opposed Central Javanese rule and often conquered large parts of Mataram. Dutch recognition of Puger was influenced by the lord of West Madura, Cakraningrat II who is thought to have supported Puger's claims in the hope that a new war in central Java would provide the Madurese with a chance to interfere.
However, while Amangkurat was arrested and exiled to Ceylon, Puger took the title of Pakubuwono I and signed a treaty with the Dutch that granted them East Madura. The Cakraningrats agreed to help the Dutch quash the rebellion in Central Java after the Chinese massacre in Cakraningrat fled to Banjarmasin , took refuge with the English, was robbed and betrayed by the sultan, and captured by the Dutch and exiled to the Cape of Good Hope.
The Dutch continued Madura's administrative divisions of four states each with their own regent. The island was initially important as a source of colonial troops and in the second half of the nineteenth century it became the main source of salt for Dutch-controlled territories in the archipelago. Madura has a population of about 3. The main language of Madura is Madurese , one of a family of Austronesian languages , which is also spoken in part of eastern Java and on many of the 66 outlying islands.
The Madurese are a large ethnic population in Indonesia, numbering around 7 million inhabitants. In addition, many Madurese live in the eastern part of East Java , commonly called the "Horseshoe", from Pasuruan to the north of Banyuwangi.
Madurese are found in Situbondo and Bondowoso, and east of Probolinggo, Jember , and a few at most who speak Javanese, including North Surabaya , as well as some of Malang. Madura has a Sunni Muslim majority and a large Shia minority. However, since , interfaith discord has escalated into violence, with many Shia villages around the city of Sampang being attacked and the population fleeing their homes for government refugee centers.
Madura Island is part of East Java province and is divided into the following four regencies , listed from west to east:. The mainland i. On the whole, Madura is one of the poorest regions of the East Java province. Unlike Java , the soil is not fertile enough to make it a major agricultural producer. Limited economic opportunities have led to chronic unemployment and poverty. These factors have led to long-term emigration from the island, such that most ethnically Madurese people do not now live on Madura.
People from Madura were some of the most numerous participants in government transmigration programs , moving to other parts of Indonesia. Subsistence agriculture is a mainstay of the economy. Maize is a key subsistence crop, on island's many small landholdings. Cattle -raising is also a critical part of the agricultural economy, providing extra income to peasant farmer families, in addition to being the basis for Madura's famous bull-racing competitions.
Small-scale fishing is also important to the subsistence economy. Among export industries, tobacco farming is a major contributor to the island's economy. Madura's soil, while unable to support many food crops, helps make the island an important producer of tobacco and cloves for the domestic kretek clove cigarette industry.
Since the Dutch era, the island has also been a major producer and exporter of salt. Bangkalan , on the western end of the island, has industrialized substantially since the s. This region is within a short ferry ride of Surabaya , Indonesia's second-largest city, and hence has gained a role as a suburb for commuters to Surabaya, and as a location for industry and services that need to be near the city.
The Surabaya-Madura Suramadu Bridge , opened , is expected to further increase the Bangkalan area's interaction with the regional economy. Madura is famous for its bull-racing competition called karapan sapi where a jockey , usually a young boy, rides a simple wooden sled pulled by a pair of bulls over a course of about meters in ten to fifteen seconds.
Several forms of music and theater are popular on Madura, particularly among poorer people for whom they provide an inexpensive form of entertainment and community-building. The topeng theater, which involves masked performances of classical stories such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata , is the Madurese performance art best known outside the island, due to its role as a representative Madurese art form at exhibitions of regional cultures from all over Indonesia.
However, performances of it are rare on Madura, and are generally restricted to entertainment at large official functions. The less formal loddrok theater, where performers do not wear masks and perform a wider range of themes, is more popular on the island. The gamelan orchestra, best known as a classical Javanese instrument, is also played on Madura, where several of the former royal courts, such as at Bangkalan and Sumenep, possess elaborate gamelans.
Tongtong music, more exclusive to Madura, is played on several wooden or bamboo drums, and often accompanies bull-racing competitions. The Madurese are considered to be excellent sailors. Madurese vessels loaded with cargoes of wood from other islands, like Borneo , used to ply their trade between Indonesia, Russia and Singapore.
Traditional vessels of Madura include the golekan and the leti-leti or leteh-leteh. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the southern Indian city, see Madurai. For the holy city in Northern India, see Mathura. For other uses, see Madura disambiguation. Authority control BNF: Retrieved from " https: Hidden categories: Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.